By Lucy J. Robertson
Although widely known as a major waterborne pathogen, Cryptosporidium spp. is additionally transmitted through infection of foodstuff. an analogous houses of this protozoan parasite that suggest that water is a superb transmission motor vehicle also are very important for foodborne transmission. those comprise the low infective dose, the excessive variety of oocysts which are excreted, and the robustness of those transmission levels. in spite of the fact that, many extra outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis were suggested than foodborne outbreaks. this is often most likely partially as a result of epidemiological tracing being even more tricky for foodborne outbreaks than waterborne outbreaks, and the variety of folks uncovered to an infection usually being fewer. however, the aptitude value of foodborne transmission is progressively being well-known, and quite a lot of various foodstuffs were linked to these outbreaks which were recorded. also, different factors suggest that the possibility of foodborne transmission is changing into of accelerating significance: those contain the expansion of overseas nutrition exchange, a present pattern for consuming uncooked or very frivolously cooked meals, and the increase in small-scale natural farms, the place there the chance for infection of vegetable vegetation with animal feces might be greater.
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Extra info for Cryptosporidium as a Foodborne Pathogen
2013) Dixon et al. (2013) No. oocysts per 200 g: lettuce: Keserue et al. 3; water spinach: 4–10 (depending on analytical method) No data provided El Said Said (2012) No. oocysts per 50 g: Chinese cabbage: 4–7; lollo rosso lettuce: 6–15; Romaine lettuce: 2–10 No. 2 5 Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Different Food Matrices… Shellfish Experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that shellfish (bivalve molluscs) have the ability to filter out, retain, and accumulate Cryptosporidium oocysts from the surrounding water (Graczyk et al.
2004) could be that the initial oocyst inocula were given relatively little time to bind to the food matrix (allowed to stand for only 15 min between inoculation and recovery); however, this would not result in more oocysts being detected than were originally seeded onto the sample. An extensive outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis in Sweden in 2010 in which cured meat products were potentially exposed to the contaminated water during their preparation in the factory in the affected town prompted the development of a method for analysis of cured meats for contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts (Robertson and Huang 2012).
However, apart from clear beverages, filtration of a large volume is not possible (filtration of colloidal liquids such as milk is also impractical), and instead some sort of elution procedure must be used for the food item itself. This is likely to mean that a relatively smaller (in terms of portion size) amount of product can be analysed. Furthermore, the approach to elution is likely to be influenced by both the physical and biochemical nature of the product, in order to optimise removal of the parasites into a fluid phase, but at the same time minimise contamination with particulates or other material that may hamper the subsequent steps in the procedure.