Controlling Modern Government: Variety, Commonality And by Christopher Hood, Oliver James, B. Guy Peters, Colin Scott

By Christopher Hood, Oliver James, B. Guy Peters, Colin Scott

Are public zone associations being uncovered to ever-greater oversight, audit and inspection within the identify of potency, responsibility and probability administration? Controlling smooth executive explores the long term improvement of controls over executive throughout 5 significant kingdom traditions in constructed democracies - US, Japan, variations of continental-European types, a Scandinavian case and variations of the Westminster version. A primary point of the learn is an 8 kingdom comparability of sort within the use of controls dependent in oversight, festival, mutuality and contrived randomness within the chosen domain names of the excessive forms on the middle of the country, the better schooling region and the legal area. international locations coated contain Australia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the united kingdom and america.

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In any case, criminal investigation and indictment by the Public Prosecutors’ Office (PPO, Kensatsu) are an exception and the PPO is regarded as a ‘family member’ (Miuchi) of the Correction Bureau and the Ministry of Justice (legally, the PPO belongs to the MOJ but each public prosecutor is an independent public official). There are several administrative overseers of prisons beyond the Ministry of Justice. The Administrative Evaluation Bureau of the Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications inspects the prison system every 10 years.

Supranational oversight of prison systems for member states of the Council of Europe also developed in the form of the European Prison Rules, which were originally derived from the 1955 United Nations prison rules. The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms also related to prisons, with a supra-national court adjudicating human rights issues under the Convention (Council of Europe, 2001). Another set of new international standards in the field was the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of 1989 (Council of Europe, 2001), which provided for a monitoring body, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, to visits places of detention, including police stations, army barracks and psychiatric hospitals to see how detainees are treated and, if necessary, to recommend improvements.

So how far and how widely has such a transformation in control arrangements taken place? For instance, how far has a reduction in some process rules (over hiring, pay, grading, contracts, financial virement, for example) meant an increase in other process rules (over matters like conflict of interest, transparency in reporting, discrimination, favouritism or bullying, or other potential managerial corner-cutting activities)? How far attempts at more ‘managerial’ approaches to public service provision involve a reduction in some kinds of controls and rules, and increases in others, or whether they unintentionally produce a ‘double whammy’ pattern in which new process rules and overseers are added without a substantial reduction of the old ones, is central to the theory of contemporary public management.

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