Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region by Joseph Kostiner

By Joseph Kostiner

This booklet analyzes 4 major episodes of clash and protection that have affected the Gulf area over the last 3 many years: the Iran-Iraq struggle (1980-1988), which effected the Gulf Cooperation Council from an in depth, neighborly distance; the Iraq-Kuwait battle (1990-1991), which constituted an try and invade the GCC and dispose of certainly one of its member states, Kuwait; next makes an attempt to reestablish a neighborhood inter-state balance within the Gulf (during the mid-1990s, nearly) and the battle of Islamic terrorism opposed to Saudi Arabia.

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The fighting continued on a large scale, involving thousands of men and large numbers of casualties, but little strategic ground was gained. Each side’s goals remained the same: Iran sought to overthrow Saddam Hussein, and Iraq tried to force a peace. Iran renewed its offensives in southern Iraq during 1986. The main objectives were to capture the Fao Peninsula and block Iraqi access to the Gulf, attack and capture Basra from the north, disrupt Iraqi oil production in the south, block Iraqi access to Kuwait, and support a Shi‘i uprising in southern Iraq.

And Israeli weapons, and used the military to assist the rebels with anti-aircraft missiles and artillery. 5 million Kurds inhabiting 25,000 square miles in northern Iraq, on the Iranian border. 19 Iraq’s internal war with the Kurds was draining its human and economic resources. 20 Iraq badly needed a compromise with Iran to neutralize its Kurdish resistance. Iran, for its part, understood that the Kurdish resistance could easily spread to Iran, where the Iranian Kurds also harbored secessionist aspirations.

The changing military realities contributed to this pragmatism. Following Britain’s 1968 declaration to withdraw from the Gulf, both Iran and Iraq initiated massive military build-ups. S. technology – surely was the greater of the two, but Iraq, with Soviet assistance, also increased its air power, artillery, and armor. This military strength, on both sides, made each nation’s key economic installations vulnerable to attack regardless of how the Shatt al-Arab and the border issues were resolved.

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