By M A Connolly; World Health Organization
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Extra resources for Communicable disease control in emergencies : a field manual
In practice, wood from surrounding forests is the most likely fuel. It is important to liaise closely with the local forestry department to control indiscriminate felling and collection. 2 Site layout and design It is important to prepare a master plan of the camp. The site plan should be sufficiently flexible to allow for a greater than expected influx of people. A 3–4% per year population growth rate must also be planned for. Overdevelopment of some areas of the site must be avoided as it can cause health problems, especially for people who come from sparsely populated environments.
It does not include land for livestock or agriculture. After space for covered shelter and support services, the remainder of the 30 m2/person area is for family plot space, latrines, washing and cooking areas, community space, roads, firebreaks, drainage, burial grounds and contingencies. For a five-person family this equals a shelter 6 by 3 metres in a plot 15 by 10 metres. In cold climates where cooking is done indoors, extra shelter space is required. 3 Community participation Ongoing community involvement in site planning and management is crucial and can maximize the effectiveness of the intervention.
Lime can be added to raise the pH and hydrochloric acid to lower it. Water treatment Water that does not meet the required standards must be treated before it is distributed to the population. 8 presents the main methods of water treatment, the selection of which depends on the extent and type of purification required. 9). Quality control Water quality checks must be made at regular intervals throughout all stages of the water distribution chain. Tests are needed several times a day at the beginning and in the middle of the chain for free residual chlorine.