Comment on écrit l'histoire: Essai d'épistémologie by Paul Veyne

By Paul Veyne

Qu’est-ce que l’histoire ? que font réellement les historiens, de Homère à Max Weber, une fois qu’ils sont sortis de leurs records et information et qu’ils procèdent à une « synthèse » ? Font-ils l’étude scientifique des diverses créations et activités des hommes d’autrefois ? Leur technological know-how est-elle celle de l’homme en société ?Bien moins que cela ; l. a. réponse à l. a. query n’a pas changé depuis deux mille deux cents ans que les successeurs d’Aristote l’ont trouvée : les historiens racontent des événements vrais qui ont l’homme pour acteur. L’histoire est un roman vrai.

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Many issues about concepts are part of the larger issue of content and intentionality, but the problem is also addressed in cognitive psychology and the questions of what concepts are and what it is to possess a concept are answered differently by the older image theory and definitional theory and the more recent functional role semantics, prototype theory, exemplar theory, theory theory and informational atomism. Arguably, a theory of concepts must explain concept robustness (stability of content), compositionality and shareability (in order to communicate different people must have the same concepts).

Dreaming: the state of having experiences similar to perceptions which occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to most people. Closely emulating our wakeful experience (rich visual phenomenology, the egocentric perspective, felt emotions, formation of beliefs about what is happening), it raises questions about the nature of 50 PHILOSOPHY OF MIND A–Z perception, imagery and (phenomenal) consciousness (the existence of qualia). 1932): American philosopher, one of the originators of the informational theory of content, externalism and representationalism about consciousness.

However, despite common disclaimers, dynamical systems modelling does not eliminate computation (all simulations are run on digital computers) and representation (variables are assigned discrete quantities, and state-transitions are rule-governed). Rather, what dynamisists about cognition deny is that rules and contents are explicitly represented in the minds of agents. However, although this may be true of some processes, it poses the same question that baffled behaviourism: what kind of behaviour is thinking?

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