Theories of Cognition in the Later Middle Ages

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Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.). In particular, several Indian philosophers, of different schools, have over time advanced the argument that mystical experience has objective epistemic value in revealing a spiritual reality. All the chief virtues are related, the Stoics maintained, so that we cannot succeed in developing some while neglecting the others.
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Gender Equality in the Philosophy of Education: Catharine

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From Creation to Providence Norman Kretzmann; 91-104 II. His efforts culminated in his greatest work, Leviathan (1651), which immediately drew harsh criticism for its skeptical and anti-religious implications. They criticized traditional morals and politics. Guided by the opinions in the recitative writings are the author's. Grosseteste’s pupil Roger Bacon (c. 1220–1292) made the mathematical and experimental methods the key to natural science. Peter Auriol: in progress edition of the Scriptum super primum Sententiarum by R.
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John of st Thomas Outlines of Formal Logic (Mediaeval

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The human being is in a state of misery because of a diseased condition brought on by original sin, for which the chief punishment is death. Hegel asserts that the twin aims of philosophy are to account for the contradictions apparent in human experience (which arise, for instance, out of the supposed contradictions between "being" and "not being"), and also simultaneously to resolve and preserve these contradictions by showing their compatibility at a higher level of examination ("being" and "not being" are resolved with "becoming").
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Greeks, Latins, and Intellectual History 1204-1500

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WE DO NOT REPRESENT OR GUARANTEE THAT YOUR USE OF THE STREAMING SERVICE WILL BE FREE FROM INTERRUPTION, LOSS, CORRUPTION, ATTACK, VIRUSES, INTERFERENCE, HACKING, OR OTHER SECURITY INTRUSION AND WE DISCLAIM ANY LIABILITY WITH RESPECT THERETO. We have little recording of what these early philosophers actually said. The endless, needless paperwork and writing exercises were actually preventing him from doing his job of supervising the agents on his squad.
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A Critical Exposition of Bergson's Philosophy

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Guldentops, Guy, „Die Kritik des Ägidius von Rom am ‚falschen Gesetz‘ in ihrem philosophie- und theologiehistorischen Kontext,“ in Dass Gesetz, pp. 583-606. He set out to teach this literature to his contemporaries and in particular to make the philosophy of Aristotle, whom he considered to be the greatest philosopher, understandable to them. Ikhwân as-Safâ’, On the Natural Sciences. Teil I: Ahmad Chahlane und der hebräische Averroes,” Judaica, 70.1 (March 2014): 24-61.
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A Summa of the Summa: The Essential Philosophical Passages

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According to Aquinas (who follows Aristotle), God does not participate in forms the way creatures (or contingent things) do. These are the least profound descriptions; they�re trivial and often superfluous. Augustinian Philosophy Augustine of Hippo (354-430), the first truly great medieval philosopher, was a North African rhetorician and devotee of The Concept of a co-creator with God, according to al-Ash‘ari, amounts to polytheism and involves a radical curtailing of God’s absolute power.
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Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (Gebhardt Edition, 1925)

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A community (a state, or the Church, or particular communities) acquires property only from individuals, and the head of the community is the administrator of the community's property, not its owner. Until the thirteenth century Augustine's responses to questions concerning free will, ... D., became emperor in 161 and ruled the until his death in 180. After Commodus and a succession of other incompetent emperors, Christianity replaced philosophy, the Empire crumbled, and for a thousand years Greek thought was largely forgotten.
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Little Wisdoms: Chivalry (Medieval Wisdom)

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Human beings are secondary instruments in this process. Of course, once developed, these tools remained and indeed still remain available to be used in contexts that have nothing to do with Christian doctrine. Sklare, David, “The Reception of Mu’tazilism among Jews Who Were Not Professional Theologians,” Intellectual History of the Islamicate World, 2.1-2 (2014): 18-36. Ancient art was largely, but not entirely, based on the six great ancient civilizations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, and China.
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Medievalia et Humanistica (Studies in Medieval and

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Modern Political Philosophy (PHIL 364) - A study of the principal problems and texts of modern political philosophy starting from Machiavelli. Spinoza constructed a system of philosophy on the model of geometry. This kind of attitude is, in fact, used in a number of real-life experiences as well. Thus we find �[And Joseph was] beautiful in toar [i.e., physical form], and beautiful in appearance� (Gen. 39:6).. . It was Spinoza who first dared to cross these boundaries, and by the skillful use of weapons accumulated in the arsenal of philosophy itself he succeeded in bringing both God and man under the universal rule of nature and thus establishing its unity.” This was Spinoza’s redirection of philosophy, says Wolfson, and his affront to the religious tradition. 1 Wolfson’s next major work, Philo, treated of still another Jew adjusting to the intellectual pressures of a variegated non-Jewish reality, but his subject this time was a preacher who turned to philosophy not to undermine but to accommodate Judaism to it.
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A History of Philosophy, from Thales to the Present Time

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It is the struggle, not the state, which has intrinsic value. "Certainly there is no guarantee … that the struggle on behalf of the Torah within the framework of the state will be crowned with success, but even so we are not free to desist from it, for this struggle is itself a supreme religious value, independent of its results" (p. 208). When one starts to reason from judgments accepted on religious faith, then one is thinking as a theologian. 4. Anselm agrees, and he draws attention to the fact that the same kind of things often differ in their degree of goodness.
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