St. Thomas and the Problem of the Soul in the Thirteenth

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Beginning with volume 12 new issues are published on the website, exclusively in digital format. This is an excellent summary of Mediaeval Christian philosophy. Since the will was understood as a power of the intellect, this view locates passions in the intellectual, rather than the sensitive powers of the soul. Nevertheless, the focus on the individual human being, responsible before the universe for the authenticity of his or her existence, is common to all these thinkers.
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Political Ideas of ST Thomas Aquinas

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He is a philosopher by nature and profession, but he interjects his (mild) disapproval of Utopian hedonism. a. Aristotle's expansion and classification of the sciences had done much to separate science from philosophy. A monk named Gaun­ilo countered that Anselm's argument—now known as the "ontological argument"—also proved the existence of the greatest conceivable island, which is nonsense. x The ontological argument establishes so many different divine attributes that it is difficult to see how one and the same being can possess all of them at once.
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Studies in John the Scot (Erigena): A Philosopher of the

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For example, once we�ve reasonably identified the tuna casserole as the cause of the illnesses, we can give differing portions of the contaminated item to different people to see how sick they get. The liberal trend was helped, perhaps paradoxically, by the close interweaving of religion with other threads of medieval life. Thomas Aquinas restored Natural Law to its independent state, asserting that, as the perfection of human reason, it could approach but not fully comprehend the Eternal law and needed to be supplemented by Divine law.
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Natural Law and Political Realism in the History of

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The 19th century took the radical notions of self-organization and intrinsic order from Goethe and Kantian metaphysics, and proceeded to produce a long elaboration on the tension between systematization and organic development. The Christian is born a pagan, who, through baptism, becomes a Christian. Z., “Al-Ghazali’s Causality Principle Compared with the Causality Principles in Modern Theories of Physics,” Islamic Quarterly, 57.2 (2013): 117-30. This program of acceptance and reconciliation of contradictions is known as the "Hegelian dialectic".
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Hadewijch and Her Sisters: Other Ways of Loving and Knowing

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In ontology, Averroes rejects the view advanced by Avicenna that existence is merely accidental. Nearly all of the medieval thinkers—Jewish, Christian, and Muslim—were pre-occupied with some version of the attempt to synthesis philosophy with religion. Should we reinterpret our descriptions of God in special ways? Of the proofs for the creation of the world, Baḥya prefers the one from composition. Women should, in general, be ruled by men.[ 55 ] The inferiority of women was already the general opinion, but Aristotle reinforced it, not only by what he said in the Politics but also by his biological theories.
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Treatise on Law (Hackett Classics)

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Originally the term "philosophy" was applied to all intellectual endeavours. The period in the history of Latin Europe after that of the “Fathers of the Church” has traditionally been called the “dark age”, because very few writings were produced then. However, the discipline now called Philosophy of religion was, it is presumed, a unique development of the Medieval era, and many of the problems that define the subject first took shape in the Middle Ages, in forms that are still recognisable today.
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Reportatio super Sententias III-IV (Studies and Texts)

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No such thing has ever been proven to exist and acceptance of even one divine will by any small group opens humanity up to competing divine wills and unbridgeable gaps. Epicurus regarded reality as a random arrangement of atoms and decreed that pleasure is the chief goal of life. Under the influence of ibn Bajja, Falaquera depicted the perfect man as a solitary philosopher who is estranged from society and who attains intellectual perfection because he subdues his appetites, controls his emotions, and lowers his human interaction to the necessary minimum.
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Ancient and Medieval Concepts of Friendship (SUNY Series in

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Anselm, Proslogion (The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God) 308-310. Socrates' way of teaching philosophy was to run an informal school in which he and his students would spend hours or even days at a time sitting and walking about, eating and drinking, and asking each other questions to which they would try to supply possible answers. Thus Phyrro managed the neat trick of setting himself against the almost opposite teachings of Aristotle and Plato at the same time, and of simultaneously honoring and contradicting the heritage of Socrates.
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On Proclus and His Influence in Medieval Philosophy

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Etzkorn, in "Franciscus de Mayronis," 1994-97) Tractatus de voce univoca (ed. Kierkegaard, the father of religious existentialism, begins by contemplating the meaning of existence itself, rather than engaging in philosophical abstractions; he wrote that it was easier to indulge in abstract thought than it was to exist. Parliament and the “university” are arguably the two great medieval institutions that have survived more or less intact to the present day. (The Church may be counted as a conspicuous third, depending on one's views about the Reformation and Counter-Reformation.) Frequently, universities grew out of cathedral schools.
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The Wisdom of the Middle Ages

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The focus is on biology, with selected topics from physics and chemistry. Thomas held that in each individual material substance, organic or inorganic, there is but one substantial form, which confers being, substantiality and, in the case of man, life, sensation, and reason. An Annotated translation, » in Medieval Arabic Thought, pp. 209-20. Martínez Lorca, Andrés, “La crítica de al-Ghazâlî al racionalismo filosófico islámico: Revisión de una polémica histórica,” in Al-Ghazâlî (1058-1111), pp. 53-83.
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