Leaside

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With the goal of making Civ V's AI “smarter, not harder,” the Communitas AI and Tools sets a base for other mods like the Communitas Enhanced Gameplay mod outlined below, which I ran paired with the CAT mod for best results. It is not that Norwegian Jews are often discriminated against, but that from time to time they are under serious threat in the public domain. Once a civilization industrializes, it can choose from the ideologies of Freedom, Autocracy, and Order, and then select tenets that provide special bonuses and abilities.
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Mother India

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My mind was perfectly at liberty; and so of all the eyes in that room mine was the only pair able to look about in easy freedom. For painters of the Renaissance age it was harder for them to look back at ancient artwork because their was not many works to study. There is debate over when this integration began, and what sort of integration – cultural, technological, economic, political, or military-diplomatic – is the key indicator in determining the extent of a civilization. What is the most popular food in Britain? a.
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The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam

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And the Empire always regarded this "Exodus," the flight into Desert, as a threat to its claims and to its very existence, from the times of St. Bringing an army of some 20,000 men he inflicted a humiliating defeat on the Christians. Pollard’s Law of Complexity: Things are the way they are for a reason. Perhaps the scaffold.'' ``Oh, you needn't tremble. Demographic pressure probably led to the adoption of crop cultivation and animal husbandry ( pastoralism ), leading to modern civilisation.
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Cliff Castles and Cave Dwellings of Europe

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Then, to-morrow night, we would send him on to Tolosa by the west coast route, with the news; and then he can also call on Do a Rita who will no doubt be already there.. . .'' he became again distracted all in a moment and actually went so far as to wring his fat hands. ``Oh, yes, she will be there!'' he exclaimed in most pathetic accents. The science was further developed by such figures as al-Karaji until it reached its peak with Khayyam who classified by kind and class algebraic equations up to the third degree.
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Contemporary Moral Problems (with InfoTrac)

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Rome deb ased its currency.� Rome's Denarius was nearly pure silver in 211 BCE when it was first minted; by 269 CE, as the Empire was slowly coming apart, the coin had almost no silver at all in it. [705] � Money is only accounting, and debasing it was only a symptom of Rome�s decline, not a cause.� Currency debasement is a governmental choice by which it essentially steals from those who use the currency .� There are arguments that it can forestall a deflationary trend, but it has always been used as an easy form of taxation that benefits those creating the money.� All currencies for all time have been made worthless by those creating the money, as the short-term temptations for debasing a currency are too seductive.� Energy is the m eaningful measure of macroeconomic health, not money.
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Teach Yourself World Cultures: France

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Venice are excellent as they can get a trade route with everyone whilst still feeding their own cities with food and production. Thoughts of body, food, drink, bath, etc., are habitual thinking. During this time an efficient government ruled, great cities were built and literature and art flourished. Yield: +2 culture and +2 gold, with additional culture (+1) and gold(+2) after researching Flight. Their wide ranging artistic cultures and traditions are attributed to the river valley environment, which was rich with metals and clay.
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World Civilizations: Volume II: Since 1500: 2

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In their homelands, the Western nations have experienced a series of political upheavals. So I took that one.'' She whispered to herself: ``Lastaola,'' not as if to test the sound but as if in a dream. Amazing urban architecture was soon uncovered across the valley and into the western plains. Men were compelled by religion to treat their wives well, and a portion of the husband's property was given to his wife during marriage. Often the facade on the inner court repeats the design of the outer facade, and minarets are used to frame the composition.
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The Idea of Decline in Western History

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He tried to effect a synthesis between scripture and Platonic philosophy. A parrot would have added that I had given him no right to be jealous. He seemed to know, at least slightly, both Mills and Blunt. A specifically Western civilization came much later. The archaeological record shows that the site was inhabited for only a few centuries. Muslim pilgrims, traders, soldiers, scholars, and government officials made long journeys across the Islamic empire and beyond. The Ni le River's valley made the rise of Egyptian civilization possible, and it had the Old World�s most reliable food supply.� Even today, half of Egypt�s population lives on the Nile�s delta.� Annual floods brought silt from deforestation and erosion from the highlands to the delta, which kept the fields fertile. [659] � Unlike the Mesopotamian disaster, salination was not a major problem for Egyptians, except at Faiyum and irrigated areas above the flood line. [660] � The Egyptian and Harappan civilizations were not pristine, as they were beneficiaries of Fertile Crescent innovations, and arose from hunter-gatherer societies that did not pass through the learning and evolutionary curve for domesticating their plants and animals.� Those pristine civilizations may have been the only places on Earth where civilization could first appear.� If not for those regions where people domesticated plants, humanity might still be living like aboriginal Australians did for nearly 50,000 years.
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The Military Invention of Horseshoes; How and Why Horseshoes

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And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state? Gradually, through cultural diffusion, linkages were formed and many different specific cultures evolved into larger groupings called culture areas - regions with shared cultural traits.
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Excavations at Ana (Iraq Archaeological Reports)

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The Triassic began hot and ended hot, and the Jurassic and Cretaceous were also hot, so staying warm was not a significant issue for dinosaurs.� Marine reptiles stayed cool by becoming aquatic, and for land-based dinosaurs, features such as Stegosaurus plates apparently replaced the sails of synapsids for both heating and cooling, and like the synapsid sail, those Stegosaurus plates may have also been used for display. [327] � Also, like the clich�, many large herbivorous dinosaurs lived near cooling swamps, although the issue has been controversial.� Cooling swamps and protective water holes that we see in the tropics today were a major aspect of Mesozoic landscapes.� But the thermoregulatory aspect that most work is directed toward today is how dinosaurs kept warm.� There is compelling evidence that dinosaurs regulated their body temperature in myriad ways, including internal chemistry.� All bipedal animals today are endotherms and they all have four-chambered hearts, as dinosaurs did.� Feathers, dinosaurs living near the poles ( 1, 2 ), and oxygen-isotope studies of dinosaur bones all support the idea that dinosaurs engaged in internal temperature regulation, but one of the more intriguing areas is that of dinosaur growth .� Like tree rings, bones have seasonal growth rings and they have been read for many dinosaur fossils.� They have been used to determine dinosaurian life expectancies.� Tyrannosaurus rex could live to be about 30, giant sauropods could live to be 50, and smaller dinosaurs, as with smaller mammals, lived shorter lives.� The tiny ones only lived three-to-four years and the mid-sized ones lived seven-to-fifteen years. [328] � Growth rates also provide thermoregulation evidence.� Tyrannosaurs had juvenile growth spurts and largely stopped growing as adults, and sauropods had growth rates equivalent to today�s whales, which are Earth�s fastest growing animals. [329] � But there is also evidence of ectothermic dynamics.� The great s ize of dinosaurs would have led to relatively easy ways to stay warm, as large animals have a greater mass-to-surface area ratio, like the way in which complex cells overcame the energy generation issue .� Also, in the generally hot Mesozoic times, staying warm would have been fairly easy, particularly for huge dinosaurs.� As scien tists know with mammals, although optimal performance can be attained with endothermy, it comes with a great energetic cost.� As with plants, an animal can spend its energy budget on consumption (metabolism) or investment (growth).� An intriguing hypothesis is that growing large was part of an energy strategy, as the benefits of size (reduced risk of predation, ease of conserving body heat and consequently less need for a high metabolism, ability to access new food sources, such as foliage high above the ground) outweighed their costs (energy devoted to growth instead of metabolism, the need to constantly feed).� Their size and the warm climate meant that large dinosaurs did not need as intense internal energy generation as mammals do, for instance, and dinosaurs may have been mesotherms, with internal energy regulation greater than ectotherms, but not as great as endotherms (mammals and birds). [330] � In light of GEOCARBSULF's depiction of low Mesozoic oxygen levels, Peter Ward addressed a controversial issue regarding how dinosaurs breathed. [331] � Bir ds have an air sac breathing system with an inflexible septate lung, which is highly superior to the mammalian alveolar bellows lung .� At 1600 meters elevation, today�s birds are about twice as efficient at extracting atmospheric oxygen as mammals are.� Flying is the most aerobically demanding activity on Earth and a bird�s air-sac breathing system is a primary reason why they can fly, and flying over the Himalayas is an energetic feat far beyond what any mammal can accomplish.� The high-performance respiration that birds possess is also why they live far longer than similarly sized mammals, but is related to their efficient mitochondria .� When a mammal breathes, it inhales oxygenated air and exhales carbon dioxide, but it is not a very efficient system, as fresh and depleted air mix in the lungs.� The air sac system, on the other hand, passes fresh oxygenated air along the lungs with each breath.� One might say that birds constantly inhale.� Animations of the air sac system can help us understand it .� Since birds evolved from dinosaurs, and indeed are dinosaurs, just when this innovation developed is of great interest to paleobiologists.� If the early Mesozoic were the low-oxygen times that GEOCARBSULF depicts, then the air sac system would have been a logical adaptation to oxygen-poor air.
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