Biomaterials: An Introduction by Joon Park, R. S. Lakes

By Joon Park, R. S. Lakes

With sixty years of mixed event, the authors of this broadly revised publication have realized to stress the basic fabrics technological know-how, structure-property relationships, and organic responses as a origin for a wide range of biomaterials purposes. This variation incorporates a new bankruptcy on tissue engineering and regenerative medication, nearly 1900 references to extra studying, broad instructional fabrics on new advancements in spinal implants and fixation recommendations and concept. It additionally deals systematic assurance of orthopedic implants, and improved remedy of ceramic fabrics and implants.

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The shear modulus of an isotropic material is related to its Young's modulus by E  2G(1 Q ), (3-4) in which Q is the Poisson's ratio of the material. Poisson's ratio is defined as the negative ratio of the transverse strain to the longitudinal strain for tensile or compressive loading of a bar. Poisson's ratio is close to 1/3 for common stiff materials, and is slightly less than 1/2 for rubbery materials and for soft biological tissues. For example, stretch a rubber band by 10% of its original length and the cross-sectional dimensions will decrease by about 5%.

2 Estimate the size of the surface flaw in a glass whose modulus of elasticity and surface energy are 70 GPa and 800 erg/cm2, respectively. Assume that the glass breaks at a tensile stress of 100 MPa. Answer From Eq. 6 Pm.  [Note that if the crack is on the surface its length is a; if it is inside the specimen it is 2a. b. Dynamic fatigue failure When a material is subjected to a constant or a repeated load below the fracture stress, it can fail after some time. This is called static or dynamic (cyclic) fatigue respectively.

Depending on the purpose one can subject the material to mechanical, thermal, chemical, optical, electrical, and other characterizations to make sure that the material under consideration can function without failure for the life of the final product. We will consider only mechanical, thermal, and surface properties in this chapter, while in the next chapter we will study electrical, optical, and diffusive properties. 1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Among the most important properties for the application of materials in medicine and dentistry are the mechanical properties.

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