# Basic Training in Chemistry by Steven Hoenig

By Steven Hoenig

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Extra resources for Basic Training in Chemistry

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5 pH pH is the measure of how strong or weak an acid is, and is defined as the negative of the log of the hydrogen ion concentration, or Water has a pH of 7, this is calculated from the dissociation constant for water: The concept of pH can be applied to any system in which hydrogen ions are produced. An acidic solution would have an excess of hydrogen ions, a basic solution would have an excess of hydroxide ions, and a neutral solution the hydrogen ions would equal the hydroxide ions. Since pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, acidic and basic solutions can be distinguished on the basis of their pH.

1 Born-Haber Cycle 53 An important property of an ionic crystal is the energy required to break the crystal apart into individual ions, this is the crystal lattice energy. It can be measured by a thermodynamic cycle, called the Born-Haber cycle. 54 Chapter 2 The Born-Haber cycle follows the Law of Conservation of Energy, that is when a system goes through a series of changes and is returned to its initial state the sum of the energy changes is equal to zero. 2 55 Madelung Constant The crystal lattice energy can be estimated from a simple electrostatic model When this model is applied to an ionic crystal only the electrostatic charges and the shortest anion-cation internuclear distance need be considered.

1 Born-Haber Cycle 53 An important property of an ionic crystal is the energy required to break the crystal apart into individual ions, this is the crystal lattice energy. It can be measured by a thermodynamic cycle, called the Born-Haber cycle. 54 Chapter 2 The Born-Haber cycle follows the Law of Conservation of Energy, that is when a system goes through a series of changes and is returned to its initial state the sum of the energy changes is equal to zero. 2 55 Madelung Constant The crystal lattice energy can be estimated from a simple electrostatic model When this model is applied to an ionic crystal only the electrostatic charges and the shortest anion-cation internuclear distance need be considered.