Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of by Gideon Freudenthal

By Gideon Freudenthal

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Contents:
1. difficulties and techniques of Analysis.- 2. technology and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s concept of area and the gap conception of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and procedure in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the speculation of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute house; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. evidence of the life of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. facts of the life of Empty Space.- five. the basic houses of a Particle in Empty house; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislation of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty area; Newton’s primary Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ errors and the bounds of the perception of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislation of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of impression, Elasticity, and the idea that of a cloth Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the idea of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s inspiration of Gravity and area because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technology and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and approach in sleek Philosophy.- IV. the concept that of aspect in seventeenth Century ordinary Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the idea that of point within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the idea that of aspect in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among ordinary and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social heritage of the Bourgeois inspiration of the Individual.- VIII. England earlier than the Revolution.- 1. city, kingdom, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. functional and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and state nation within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s thought of the nation as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the debate with Feudal conception and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. replacement Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of self reliant vendors: Adam Smith.- 2. the easy Commodity construction of self sustaining inner most vendors: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an combination of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as opting for the houses of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the fundamental homes of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and task as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; lively and Passive Principle.- five. The procedure of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the nation and on this planet System.- 6. method of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. point and approach within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- record of Abbreviations.- identify Index.

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This can be shown by comparing his argument on gravitation with his proof of the existence of absolute space. The existence of empty space independent of matter was supposed to be proven by the fact that at a height of even 200 miles the quantity of matter is infinitesimal in relation to the volume of space, without there being any change in the character of space. If all particles were evenly distributed throughout space, the relation of empty volume to filled would be 686 . 10 18 to 1. But matter is not evenly distributed throughout space; the relation of empty space to matter in the distant regions is thus even incomparably greater, and the attraction of two particles can for practical purposes be neglected.

The law-likeness of nature thus precedes the individuation of matter. For Descartes, all phenomen are to be traced back to laws of nature or to the properties of the particles of matter in this world, not to the properties which belong to a single particle in empty space. For Newton, nothing preceded the individual existence of the particles of matter: ... it seems probable to me, that God in the Beginning form'd Matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable Particles, of such Sizes and Figures, and with such other THE THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SPACE 27 Properties, and in such Proportion to Space, as most conduced to the End for which he form'd them (Optieks, Qu, 31,400).

285), in order to obtain his new measure of force, it should not be forgotten that he had for years dealt with real cranks and with the practical conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy. From this it is understandable not only that Leibniz could correct Descartes' mistake but also why he again and again cites the model of this 'dynamic machine' to prove his law of conservation. 9 3. ACTION MOT RICE Leibniz's proof for the conservation of the 'true measure of force' showed that the 'living power' of a freely falling body A was equal to the product of its mass and the height of fall.

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