Armies and Enemies of the Crusades, 1096-1291 by Ian Heath

By Ian Heath

Supplier, strategies, gown and guns

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Even a cursory biography of the man astounds. An orphaned poor cousin of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca, born in 570 or thereabouts, he had been raised in boyhood by a benevolent uncle. As a youth, Muhammad first eked out a living in the employ of his more successful relatives. At the time Mecca was an important trading center and pilgrimage site. Its precious well, Zamzam, stood near the middle of the haram, a sacred precinct in which bloodshed was forbidden. The oasis settlement was controlled by several families belonging to the Quraysh.

Europe—History, Military. 4. Battles—Mediterranean Region—History. 5. East and West. I. Title. com 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Typeset by Westchester Book Group Printed in the United States of America by Quebecor World Fairfield To my father & the memory of my mother CONTENTS Notes on Usage Introduction 1. Yarmuk 636 2. Poitiers 732 3. Córdoba, 4. Manzikert 1071 5. Palermo and Toledo 6. Hattin 1187 7. Las Navas de Tolosa 1212 8. The Sea of Faith 9. Constantinople 1453 and Kostantiniyye 10. Malta 1565 Epilogue Glossary People of the Sea of Faith Select Timeline Notes Bibliography Acknowledgments NOTES ON USAGE The goal of reducing obstacles in the reader's path sometimes leads to inconsistency, which, to my mind, is a benign vice when compared to the mischief inflicted on prose by an excess of scruples.

To be fair, the obscuring of the Christian-Muslim encounter of the distant past may not be the result solely of cultural tunnel vision—that is, learning only those histories that redound to the benefit of whichever society happens to be setting the curriculum. ) Much of our un-familiarity arises from not knowing the Muslim sources for the period under study, those voices that lend balance to what was, after all, a two-way relationship. Thanks to the work of professional historians in the last half-century, these sources have been made available in translation, although much of their content has yet to be presented to the nonspecialist reader.

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