By A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R. Smith
Initially released in 1983, The Cambridge historical past of Arabic Literature was once the 1st common survey of the sector to were released in English for over fifty years and the 1st tried in such element in a multi-volume shape. The volumes of the heritage supply a useful resource of reference and figuring out of the highbrow, literary and spiritual historical past of the Arabic-speaking and Islamic global. This quantity starts its assurance with the oral verse of the 6th century advert, and ends with the autumn of the Umayyad dynasty centuries later. inside this era fall significant occasions: the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, the founding of the Islamic faith, the good Arab Islamic conquests of territories outdoor the Arabian Peninsula, and their assembly, as overlords, with the Byzantine and Sasanian international. members to this quantity talk about an array of themes together with the impacts of Greeks, Persians and Syrians on early Arabic literature.
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Extra info for Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature)
G. r and ^, both in Syriac and Nemara, are still differentiated in basic form, but in Arabic need a diacritic dot to distinguish 3;; on the other hand, r and d ate undifferentiated in Nemara but differentiated in Arabic. In some cases in Arabic the differentiation is not simply by presence or absence of a dot, but between varieties in the number and placing of dots: initial and medial b, /, th, nyy all have dots differing in number and placing, and in word-end position only n and y are distinctive without the aid of dots.
Son of X " by a derivational form with the ending ARABIC NOMENCLATURE 19 -/" (called a nisbah): thus a man whose personal ism was Zayd, and who belonged to the tribe claiming descent from Bakr, would be referred to as Zayd al-Bakrl, "Zayd the Bakrite", or (with the patronymic) Zayd ibn Asad al-Bakrl. For women, ibn is replaced by bint, "daughter of", and the tribal designation has the feminine form ending in -iyjah. Alongside this standard form of nomenclature, some well-known individuals had a nickname, laqab, and this is normally used in preference to the "real" name: the poet Thabit b.
The baytitself, however, is divided into two hemistichs or " half-lines " (shatr), and the rhythmical pattern of the first of these is repeated in the second, with the proviso that the last two or three syllables of the second half-line usually exhibit some minor modification of the pattern occurring at the end of the first half-line. e. the omission of one or two syllables. The boundary between the two half-lines is in the more formal and prestige-bearing metres a caesura, that is to say, it coincides with the end of a word as in the French " Alexandrine ".