By Petra Maria Vogel, Bernard Comrie
The heritage of observe category examine is characterised by way of severe positions. as much as the nineteenth century, it was once believed that be aware periods have been always of the Latin or Greek style and common. unlike that, within the twentieth century, the view prevailed that each language had its personal particular and targeted be aware classification method. within the final many years, besides the fact that, it has develop into obvious that regardless of the big variety of note sessions and notice classification structures there are typological regulations with reference to the conceptualization of semantic positive factors and morphosyntactic buildings. this article ways notice periods and their categorial manifestations from the viewpoint of typology and language universals study. The authors during this quantity talk about be aware category categorization normally (Part I), in addition to observe periods and notice category platforms of person languages (Part II) from a typological-universal point of view and from diachronic and cross-linguistic views.
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Additional resources for Approaches to the Typology of Word Classes
Henne. her b. Han gick och ramlade. ' In English, there is a peculiar version of this construction, subject to the constraint that all verbs in it must be uninfected (Perlmutter 1971). Thus, (11a) is grammatical, but not (lib). (11) a. b. Go kiss a duck! *He went kissed a duck. Verbs are also differentiated from all other words by finiteness inflection in predicate function, which also spreads horizontally to verbs in dependent predicate function. 26 Jan Anward Thirdly, term use (t) differentiates nouns, quantifiers, and numerals from other noninterjections.
LSG '(s)he helps me' b. /; ART kwaxwa-c help:3SG-TRANSITI VE. 1SG 'the one who helps me' Example (14b) also illustrates the general point that a verb in term function, even though fairly verbal in its trimmings, may also assimilate to the dominant semantic category of the part of speech typically associated with that function, namely the Jan Anward category of nouns. Compare also the two meanings, activity and resulting thing, of the English deverbal nouns painting and invention. In general, an expression for semantic category K, which is recycled in function F, will either retain its category or be taken over by the category that is typical of expressions in F.
Det ar mera. Del ar en bil. ' 'That is more. ' A dependent predicate, such as hungry in John was hungry and Joan kept John hungry, is predicated of a term of its head. The semantic operation involved is functional composition (Steedman 1985: 530-533), whereby the predicates expressed by head and dependent form a composite predicate: 'is(x)' and 'hungry(y)' become 'is(hungry(y))', 'keep(x, y)' and 'hungry(z)' become 'keep(x, hungry(z))'. There are also cases such as Joan wrote the book hungry, where a dependent expresses an additional predication about the subject or object of its head.