By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in keeping with the reputable Namibian common) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by means of excess of part one million humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of different closely-related Wambo forms in Angola. those languages were studied quite little, and the research in their tonal structures has been fairly missed. the current booklet is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most goal is to supply an research of the tonal method of this language. hence the learn discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for roughly part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the feel that there are principles that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. so that it will support the reader to persist with the argumentation of the tonal research, this ebook is organised in this type of means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, through discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor notice different types. After that, the learn is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's crew R languages, particularly the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Additional info for A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies)
Once the resultant-state reading (13a) is eliminated, it is unclear whether the preference for the (adjunct) predicate to modify the object still exists. In a series of psycholinguistic studies (Clifton, Frazier, and Rapoport 1994; see also chapter 6), unambiguous subject-adjunct sentences (14a) took no longer to read than unambiguous object-adjunct sentences (14b). (14) a. b. John ate the broccoli naked. John ate the broccoli raw. The final interpretation preference data for ambiguous adjunct sentences show a somewhat unstable object preference.
Thus, much as in the relative clause attachment example, we see that a general structural preference for low attachment is not confirmed. However, a general high attachment preference is not observed either. Instead, semantic and aspectual factors (expressed in ed vs. ing) influence the complexity of processing the structures and the preferences in cases of ambiguity. We might therefore conclude that the processor associates either a subject or an object adjunct predicate into the partially indeterminate sentence structure shown in (16).
In Church's presentation of Pseudoattachment, the parser actually builds two different syntactic representations. Thus, the principle appears to reduce to the claim that a limited amount of syntactic parallelism is found in the natural-language parser. In terms of empirical predictions, Pseudoattachment thus seems to predict that processing complexity should vary with the number of possible syntactic attachments. By contrast, the Construal Hypothesis specifies that only one (underdetermined) structure is built.