By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the japanese Sudanic kinfolk. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya in simple terms Dholuo, spoken via approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily on the topic of it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of useful Grammar, the current quantity is a learn with a two-fold goal: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of delivering such an account with out utilizing transformational ideas within the experience of structure-changing operations.
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Extra resources for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
G. g. g. ‘ ' Other uses of gi will be discussed at various points later when the relevant issues arise. 1 DIRECTIONAL - There is usually no overt marking for direction if the reference is made in not-so-specific terms. Thus, one says: 9 Also look at Direction (this section) for another use ofe. ‘ where e is employed as a preposition. ‘ ' It is not possible to state explicitly where the boundary between speciﬁc and non-speciﬁc lies. The distinction is highly psychological and subject to a lot of individual idiosyncrasies.
This gives us the possibilities illustrated below: (7 1) Ahinyor-ale . ‘ -. - The unmarked nature of -e, as exempliﬁed above, accounts for the tradition popularized (if not started) by Stafford" (1967), in which the form ending in e is given as the citation form of a reﬂexive verb. Inthis tradition, the Dholuo equivalent of English ‘to hurt oneself‘ is given as hinyore. However, Dholuo speakers who rely entirely on their intuitions tend" to translate this English (inﬁnitival) phrase as hinyruok, hence the following DholuoEnglish equivalents: (77) ' - -(78) a.
31) Tlmol maduong‘ snake - rel-big ‘a big snake (a snake which is big)‘ - derives from the complex NP (noun phrase) (32) 'N|>[T11'-Iv! $[ Nplﬂluvll AdjP[d“°IlS]]l in which the sentence thuol duong ‘snake (is) big‘ is embedded into an NP which can be represented in a tree diagram as in (33) below. 28 Dnotuo Gunman (33) NP /’ \ \ Adj? 21% thuol -Z-%\ tlluol I Adj I duong' ‘The apparent oddity observed in the branching of a sentence into a noun phrase and an adjective phrase is explained by the fact that Dholuo, as we shall see later on in this section, allows verbless predicates.